The camps

At their height, there were 24 internment facilities 
across Canada divided into two categories.

The first category, located in Montreal, Toronto, Niagara Falls, Sault-Saint-Marie, and Winnipeg, were “Receiving Stations”. Their purpose was to hold individuals until they were ready to be sent to the internment camps.

The rest of the facilities were located further north in less populated parts of British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec, with a few in Nova Scotia that received prisoners of war from other British colonies.

There were [sic] an epidemic of tuberculosis in the Spirit Lake camp... There were three women interned in my family who got tuberculosis. My great-grandmother, Anna, my grandmother, Felicia, and my mother, Mary. My Grandmother died in her thirties as a result of TB.

Jerry Bayrak, a descendant of interneesfrom Spirit Lake, Quebec

Ali, Hoosen – Subject of Turkey, certificate of release from internment camp at Kapuskasing, Ontario [1916], Library and Archives Canada, R174-59-6-E

The camps were mostly located in repurposed government buildings, military installations and two rented factories. During the summer, certain locations would use tents or train cars as shelter. Adhering the Hague Convention, internment facilities were, at least technically, as good as those offered to Canadian soldiers. However, most of these camps were located in harsh environments far from hospitals and other sanitation infrastructure, allowing diseases to flourish. Due to the harsh conditions of internment, combined with the general stress of imprisonment, 107 internees died between 1914-1920.